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Tuesday, December 12, 2017

Prince Muhammad Jam Jah Ali Qara Ahmad Qaraqoyunlu (Roper Lethbridge, 1900)

Prince Muhammad Jam Jah Ali Qara Ahmad




MUHAMMAD JAM JAH ALI KARA AHMAD, Mirza Bahadur, Prince. The title is personal, being the courtesy title of the third son of the late King of Oudh. Residence: Calcutta, Bengal.



Sir Roper Lethbridge, The golden book of India, a genealogical and biographical dictionary of the ruling princes, chiefs, nobles, and other personages, titled or decorated, of the Indian empire. — London, 1900, p. 195.

Saturday, December 9, 2017

Тюркский язык как лингва франка в Грузии (Н.Г. Волкова, 1978)

Тюркский язык как лингва франка в Грузии




Двуязычие развивается и при отсутствии общих этнических границ, охватывая иногда очень широкую территорию. В этом случае второй язык, выполняющий функции «торгового» языка (лингва франка), может и не быть языком соседнего народа. В условиях Кавказа в прошлом на протяжении большого исторического периода такими языками были тюркские языки: ногайский, кумыкский, азербайджанский, турецкий. В Грузии, в частности в юго-западной и западной (прибрежные районы), был распространен турецкий язык, в южной и частично в восточной — азербайджанский язык. В распространении азербайджанского языка в качестве второго значительную роль играли особенности хозяйственного быта грузин некоторых районов Кахети и Тушети: отгон скота на зимние пастбища в Ширак, где в XIX в. осуществлялись и торговые контакты грузин-тушин и азербайджанцев. В район Ширака отары овец перегоняли кистины Грузии. Поэтому среди них встречаются мужчины (старший возраст), знающие азербайджанский язык. Кроме Ширака тюркские языки грузинское население узнавало также в районе Триалети (современный Цалкский р-н), где располагались зимние пастбища некоторых селений Кахети.
Отходничество, направляющееся из ряда населенных пунктов Картли (в частности, современного Тетри-Цкаройского р-на) в области, где численно преобладало азербайджанское население, способствовало распространению азербайджанского языка среди отходников-грузин. Например, на сезонные работы в Борчало (частично территория современного Марнеульского р-на) в начале XX в. — 1930-х годах уходили жители сел. Кода. Они работали на железной дороге Кумиси—Марнеули, нанимались работать сторожами и пастухами. Часть мужчин, жителей сел. Диди-Энагети, сезонно работали в соседнем азербайджанском сел. Косалар, где добывались минералы, применявшиеся в обработке кожи. В настоящее время подобного отходничества не существует, поэтому знание азербайджанского языка характерно только для мужчин старшего возраста.
Отходничество в Марнеули в тот же период и вследствие этого знание азербайджанского языка было характерно и для других народов, живущих в селах Тери-Цкаройского р-на: армян, осетин, греков-ромеев. Азербайджанский язык, как и грузинский, был также языком общения отходников-дагестанцев (леки), приходивших на различные работы в Грузию. Чаще всего это были лудильщики медной посуды, реже — пастухи и косари. Факты такого рода фиксируются полевыми материалами вплоть до 1940-х годов почти по всей Грузии. В настоящее время мастера-лудильщики бывают в селах республики очень редко, поскольку медная утварь в быту местного населения почти не сохранилась.

Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Sardar Nawazish Ali Khan Qizilbash (S. M. Jamil, 1949)

Sardar Nawazish Ali Khan Qizilbash




QIZILBASH, NAWAZISH ALI KHAN, SARDAR, Ph.D., Taluqdar, Premier Zamindar of the Pubjab and Jagirdar of Hur Hussain and Karbala in Iraq. B. Lahore, 6th Feb., 1901. Belongs to the Qizilbash family of the Punjab. M. daughter of Mirza Mohammad Sadiq Ali Khan, 1936. 2 sons and 2 daughters. Educ.: Forman Christian College, Lahore. Graduated with Honours from the Punjab Univ., 1924; Ph.D., 1942. Ardent Student of History and Muslim Philosophy. Special Magistrate (1st class) for 10 years; Promoter and for several years Director, Central Exchange Bank Ltd., Director, Muslim Insurance Co. Ltd.; President, Masaudia Jinnah High School Association, Bahraich; Member, Executive Committee of British Indian Association; Member, All-India Muslim League Council: Whip. Muslim League Party in U.P. Legislative Assembly. Recreations: Tennis and Shooting, Hobbies: Gardening and Reading. Address: Mubarak Haveli, Lahore.



Jamil, S. M., The Muslim year book of India and who's who, with complete information on Pakistan, 1948-49. — Bombay, 1949, p. 94.

Nawazish Ali Khan Qizilbash (Sir Roper Lethbridge, 1900)

Nawazish Ali Khan Qizilbash




NAWAZISH ALI KHAN, Sir, K.C.I.E. (of Nawabganj), Aliabad, Nawab; b. 1828. The title was conferred on May 21, 1866, as a personal distinction, in recognition of his position, and of the great public services of his distinguished father, the Nawab Ali Raza Khan Bahadur, and of himself. Belongs to a Quazilbash or Kazilbash family of high rank in Afghanistan; descended from Sardar Ali Khan, who came from the province of Sherwan on the west coast of the Caspian Sea, with Nadir Shah, when the latter invaded India. On his return Sardar Ali Khan was appointed Governor of Kandahar. He obtained the district of Hazara, north of Kandahar, on the accession of Ahmad Shah Durani, whom he accompanied in his last invasion of India, and by whose instigation he was assassinated. His son, Hidayat Khan, accompanied Shah Zaman to Lahore in 1797. When the British army brought back Shah Shuja to Kabul in 1839, Hidayat Khan’s son, Ali Raza Khan, who was living on his estate, was appointed Chief Agent of the Commissariat Department. During the disasters that followed he remained faithful to British interests; and it was mainly by his aid that the British prisoners were ultimately enabled to make their escape and join the relieving army of General Pollock. He accompanied the British forces to India on the evacuation of Afghanistan; and his estate was confiscated by Muhammad Akbar Khan, in consequence of which he received a British pension. During the Sutlej campaign he joined the British camp with his brothers and 60 horsemen of his tribe; and during the rebellion of 1848-49 furnished 100 horsemen for active service. In 1857 Ali Raza Khan voluntarily raised a troop of horse and sent it to Delhi at his own expense, mortgaging for the purpose his house and property at Lahore; this troop formed part of Hodson’s Horse, and served with conspicuous gallantry throughout the Mutiny campaigns. Lieutenant-Colonel H.H. Daly, when commandant of Hodson’s Horse, wrote of him in February 1859: “He has served throughout the war, and on all occasions has been conspicuous for chivalric valour... His gallantry has won for him the First Class of the Order of Merit... A braver soldier never took the field.” As a reward he received a large grant of lands in Oudh, with the title of Nawab conferred in 1864; and this, on his death in 1866, was continued to his son, the Nawab Nawazish Ali Khan. The family have also received a grant of lands in Lahore district in the Punjab. The Nawab was made an Honorary Assistant Commissioner of the Punjab on January 1, 1877, on the occasion of the Proclamation of Her Most Gracious Majesty as Empress of India, and he was for some time a Member of the Imperial Legislative Council of India. On June 1, 1888, he was created a Knight Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire. He has taken a prominent part in the foundation of the Punjab University, and in all important works of public utility or benevolence in that Province. Residences: Bahraich, Oudh; and Lahore, Punjab.



Sir Roper Lethbridge, The golden book of India, a genealogical and biographical dictionary of the ruling princes, chiefs, nobles, and other personages, titled or decorated, of the Indian empire. — London, 1900, p. 221.

Thursday, November 16, 2017

The Qarapapaq tribe of Sulduz (Lt. F. R. Maunsell, 1890)

The Qarapapaq tribe of Sulduz




Karapapak. ― These were originally a Turkish tribe of nomads, who have settled now some 40 years in the villages of the Sulduz and Baranduz plain. They number some 3,000 families, and are Shiahs; consequently at constant feud with the Kurdish tribes on the frontier who are Sunnis.



Reconnaissances in Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, North-West Persia, and Luristan from April to October 1888. By Lt F R Maunsell, Intelligence Branch. In Two Volumes. Volume I: narrative report, description of larger towns and routes leading from them. Simla: Intelligence Branch, Quarter Master General's Dept, 1890, p. 207.

Sunday, November 12, 2017

Vindication of the Liberties of Asiatic Women (Mirza Abu Talib Khan Tabrizi, 1801)

Mirza Abu Talib Khan Tabrizi




MIRZA ABU TALEB KHAN
Mirza Abu Taleb Khan, the author of the following curious article, is a native of Lucknow, in the province of Oude, in Hindustan. He was born of respectable Mahommedan parents, and he follows the religion of his family. He was early distinguished, in his native place, for his abilities, and his love of knowledge. Having travelled into Bengal, he was noticed by Mahmud Rizza Khan, who appointed him an aumil, or collector of the revenues. The duties of this station, and the sedulous attention which he paid to them, enabled him to acquire a very perfect knowledge both of the principles and practice of the revenue system of Hindustan. On his leaving the service of Rizza Khan, he returned to Lucknow; when Asoph-ud-Dowlah, the Nabob of Oude, having heard of his superior qualifications for the office of aumil, gave him the collection of the most populous and valuable district in his dominions. In that district he resided for many years; and, by the good sense, knowledge, liberality, and strict probity with which he exercised the functions of his office, he made the ryots, or husbandmen, from whom he collected the revenues, the most orderly, peaceful, and happy in Hindustan. So high, indeed, was his sense of honour, and his spirit of benevolence, that he refused to receive the emoluments appertaining to his office, but requested permission to distribute them amongst such of the poorer fort of ryots, as were disabled, by age or infirmities, from following their usual labours. Such conduct was not likely to make him a favourite with the courtiers at Lucknow: but the Nabob himself, sensible, in this instance at least, of such extraordinary merit, gave him an aumildarry* of considerable extent and value. This distinction served to heighten the jealousy and to raise the envy of the other aumils, who industriously propagated malicious reports against him, and insinuated that he was sacrificing the interests of his master to those of the English. This insinuation had an appearance of probability, from the intimacy which subsisted between Abu Taleb and the English gentlemen who resided at Lucknow: but, piqued at his conduct being suspected, he threw up his employment, and consequently his aumildarry. Some years afterward he came to Calcutta; and handsome offers of employment were made him by the English government, of which, at first, he refused to accept. But, at the request of Marquis Cornwallis, he agreed to go to Hydrabad in the capacity of agent for the English government; which station however, he never filled, it having been found advisable to transfer the appointment to an English officer. In the year 1799 he was induced to come to England, from his general curiosity for knowledge, as well as a strong desire to fee a country, of which he had heard so much, and in which he was sure of meeting an hospitable reception from several gentlemen whom he had formerly known at Lucknow. He took his passage in an Indiaman; and after having passed a couple of months at the Cape of Good Hope, on his way, he landed at Cork in Ireland: he then proceeded to Dublin; and from thence, by the usual route, to London. He has resided here ever since; and has been introduced at court, and received into the best company, where he met with that attention and respect to which his excellent character and singular merit so well entitled him. Before he came to England, he paid some attention to our language; and he has now acquired a sufficient knowledge of it, to read it to his own satisfaction, and make himself understood in conversation. He left England a few weeks ago, for Paris, where he proposes to pass a short time, and then to go through Vienna to Constantinople, and from thence, by way of Egypt, to Mecca, in order to visit the Caaba. From Mecca, he will probably proceeded across the deserts into Persia; and from thence, through Cabulestan, Cashmir, and the Panjab, to Delhi and Lucknow. During his residence in this country, he composed a poem in the Persian language, descriptive of London, the adjacent country, the persons, habits, manners, and public amusements of the English.
His “Vindication of the Liberties of the Asiatic Women,” he wrote in Persic, and the following is a literal translation of his manuscript. Our readers will peruse with interest the information which it contains respecting the domestic economy of the Mussulmans of Hindustan, and the peculiar privileges and customs of their women: and our still limited acquaintance with these customs, notwithstanding all the inquiries that have been made, and all that has been written about the natives of India, should teach us to be indulgent to the imperfect and curious notions formed of our habits and customs by an Hindustanee, to whom, from their striking contrast to his own, they must appear so singular unaccountable.


Vindication of the Liberties of the Asiatic Women.
By Mirza Abu Taleb Khan.

Thursday, October 19, 2017

Презрение Надир-шах Афшара к иранцам (Мухаммад Казим Мерви, [1747-53] 1961)

Презрение Надир-шах Афшара к иранцам


Счастливец эпохи отпустил пришедшее к нему индийское войско, и помянутые люди, воспользовавшись этим, отправились к месту цели. Что же касается войска из Шахджеханабада и его округи, то на Камар ад-Дина было возложено полностью успокоить сердаров, командиров и начальников и обнадежить, [сообщив] о снисходительности счастливого государя. На другой день владыка мира велел служащим величественной казны приготовить [все для] собрания по случаю счастливого приезда Мухаммад-шаха и устроить пышное торжество и подобный раю пир и отдал приказ о приглашении с большим почетом и уважением того высокого падишаха. После благословенного прибытия этих двух величественных государей они, подобно двум светилам в одном созвездии, уселись на одном троне, а эмиры и приближенные каждого из них расположились с обеих сторон в соответствующих местах,— и благодаря счастью подобного Фаридуну падишаха состоялось такое собрание, что пока месяц и солнце находятся в этом голубом шатре, они не видели очами мудрости подобного пиршества, и пока Венера... играет на кануне увеселения, она не устраивала такого пышного веселья и с такими удовольствиями. Старый небесный свод приказал в тот радостный день украсить звездами тот райский пир и для достижения настоящего совершенства бросил на огонь солнца, как руту, ожерелье Плеяд. Семь планет изумлялись, глядя из комнат вращающегося круга на это торжество, и у небесной сферы неподвижных звезд || выступил на лбу пот стыда из-за убранства этого торжества. Внутри шатра слуги, как солнце и месяц, в положении гурий и мальчиков, «подобных жемчужинам спрятанным», стояли со всех сторон у края ковра, и в стремлении [привлечь] внимание каждый забывал зов веры и разума. Снаружи шатра стояли рядом друг с другом по правилам приличия опытные, смелые, как Бахрам, военачальники, одетые в разноцветные платья. Словом, снаружи и внутри согласно царскому этикету состоялось такое торжество, какого ни в одном веке ни одним обладателем богатства и могущества не устраивалось. По этому правилу, когда веселый пир окончился, военачальникам было приказано удалиться; после их ухода был отдан высочайший приказ, чтобы близкие доверенные лица и слуги высокого дворца вышли из шатра и находились молча в стороне. Когда все ушли, небеснопышный государь устроил частное совещание, и они говорили друг другу тайны и вели секретный разговор.