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Wednesday, March 15, 2017

The Qizilbash population of Uttar Pradesh, India (William Crooke, 1896)

The Qizilbash population of Uttar Pradesh, India

Mughul, Mughal. — One of the four great Muhammadan sub-divisions known in Europe under the form Mongol. Mr. Ibbetson1, writing of the Panjab, does not attempt to touch upon “the much debated question of the distinction between the Turks and Mughuls. In the Delhi territory, indeed, the villagers accustomed to describe the Mughuls of the Empire as Turks, used the word as synonymous with ‘official’, and I have heard my Hindu clerks of Kayasth class described as Turks, merely because they were in Government employ. On the Biloch frontier the word Turk is commonly used as synonymous with Mughul. The Mughuls proper probably either entered the Panjab with Babar, or were attracted thither under the dynasty of his successors; and I believe that the great majority of those who have returned themselves as Mughuls in the Eastern Panjab really belong to that race.” In these Provinces they say that they take their name from their ancestor Mughul Khan.
2. In the last Census they are classed under three sub-divisions: Chaghtai, Qazalbash, and Turkman. Writing of Afghanistan Dr. Bellew2 says: — “What the origin of these new clans was, whether they were conquered and converted Pathans, who became absorbed into the dominant tribe, and thus, by the mere force of numbers and other favouring circumstances of the period, gave them both their language and social code of laws; or whether they were kindred tribes of Turks imported by Sabaktagin (that is, ‘the one called Sabak;’ as Alaptakin, ‘the one called Alap,’ takin being the distinctive affix of the names of Turk slaves), the founder of the Turk Tatar (as distinguished from the Mongal or Mughul Tatar) dynasty at Ghazni, is not clearly ascertained. Without excluding the possibility of their increase by the occasional immigration of other kindred Turk clans from across the Oxus, it may be considered more probable that the inrease in the clans of the Ghilji took place mostly by the absorption and adoption of subjugated native tribes; for we find several instances of Chaghatai Turk clans living in close proximity to the Ghilji, yet quite distinct from them, and entirely ignorant of any kindred connection with them. Such Turk clans are the Bayat abont Ghazni and Herat, the Carlugh, Chung, and Mughal Turk (Yaka, Chirikcha, etc.) of Balkh, etc. Such also are the Mongol and Chaghatai Turk clans of Mangal, Jaji, Jadran, Khitai, etc., who are settled about the Pewar and the head-waters of the Kurram river, and who were brought to these situations on the invasions of Changhis and Tymur — the Tatar scourges of the world during the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries. These clans, with the exception of the Jadran, though they have almost entirely lost the typical physiognomy of their race, their mother tongue, and indeed, everything else, but their names, which would connect them with their original stock, hold themselves entirely distinct, political relations always excepted, from the Ghilji, who are their neighbours.”
3. Other clans in these Provinces are the Qazalbash or Qizilbash, “red heads”, Uzbak, Turk, Kai, Chak, Tajik. In the Panjab the main tribes are the Chaghtai and Barla. Some of these, especially the Chaghtai, are claimed by the Bhatti Jadons to have descended from them when they were rulers of Ghazni and Zabalistan. The last Imperial family was drawn from the Chaghtai. The Jhojha also call themselves Mughul, but they are supposed to be slaves of Mughul or low caste Hindus converted to Islam by some Mughul nobleman. They are not suffered to intermarry with the Rajput Musulmans, or with any of the pure Muhammadan tribes.3

Distribution of the Mughuls according to the Census of 1891:

Sunday, January 15, 2017

Fateh Ali Khan Qizilbash (1917)

Fateh Ali Khan Qizilbash

20th September 1911, 10th July 1912, 21st May 1913.
Fateh Ali Khan, Kazilbash, C.I.E., Nawab. ― Head of the well-known Turkish family of the Kazilbash1 tribe which first migrated from the west coast of Caspian (now part of the Russian territories) with Nadir Shah, the famous invader of India and settled in Kabul where they exercised considerable influence and authority and were in possession of hereditary estates.
Some of the members of the family, while being under their Oriental Master, rendered most valuable services to Government during the First Afghan Campaign.
In 1839, when the British Army first entered Kabul, one of the ancestors of the present Nawab ― Ali Raza Khan ― endered invaluable services to Government in connection with commissariat supply, &c., and later in 1857 in raising a large force with great sacrifice. In recognition of these services he was granted a talukdari of one hundred and forty-seven villages, worth about Rs. 15,000 per annum, and was created a hereditary Nawab in 1864, and settled in Lahore.
Fateh Ali Khan succeeded his uncle Sir Nawazish Ali Khan, K.C.I.E., who rendered excellent military services in 1890 and inherited his estates and the title of “Nawab” and became the representative of the family with a high seat in Provincial Durbars. The Nawab has followed good examples of his predecessors and worthily maintained the reputation of the family. In 1897 he was nominated a Member of the Punjab Legislative Council and a Fellow of the University. In 1902 he proceeded to England as one of the representatives of the Punjab for the Coronation of His Majesty the King, and in 1903 was invited as an official guest to the Delhi Durbar, at which he was invested as a C.I.E. In 1904 he was made an Additional Member of the Government is unflinching. He is a liberal subscriber to all charitable causes and has earned the respect of all classes both as a public-spirited citizen and as one of the leading Mahommedan noblemen of the Punjab. He was one of those who were presented to the Prince of Wales in 1906.
He had an interview with Lord Minto in January 1906.
He was one of those presented to the Princes of Wales in 1906.

1Kazilbash or “red-head” is a Turkish derivation said to have arisen from red caps worn by the tribe. Massey.

Interviews With Lord Hardinge [1911-16] (1917)

The army of the Nawab of Awadh Shuja-ud-Dawla Qaraqoyunlu (Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava, 1945)

The army of the Nawab of Awadh Shuja-ud-Dawla Qaraqoyunlu

The army that came to Shuja as an inheritance from his father was, besides a powerful park of artillery, about fifty thousand strong, next only to the imperial forces at Delhi in number and efficiency. The most highly prized branch was cavalry which numbered about 20,000 picked horse, consisting mainly of Qizilbashes, Irani and Turani Mughals, and Hindu Rajputs and Nagas or Gosains, noted for their reckless bravery and contempt of death. It was well-equipped and well-paid, the salary of a trooper ranging from fifty to sixty rupees a month. But the infantry, though more numerous, was of much less consequence and was ill-equipped and poorly paid, the pay of a foot-soldier not exceeding ten or twelve rupees per month. The artillery was crude and cumbrous, essentially medieval and inefficient. Before his defeat at Buxar the wazir’s army was mercenary in character and lacked scientific training and discipline. The Mughals, dominated by greed for money and habitual love of plunder, were little amenable to rigorous discipline, were undependable in an hour of crisis, and fell on the baggage and effects of their master with as much avidity as on those of his enemy, whenever they could have an opportunity to do so. Their example had demoralizing effect on other troops and we find even the Nagas succumbing to the temptation of plunder in one of the battles. Thus the wazir’s army before 1765 was a medieval institution in its composition, organization, training and discipline and in the mercenary character of its troops and their out-of-date weapons.

The army of Abul Mansur Khan Safdar Jang Qaraqoyunlu (Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava, [1933] 1954)

The army of Abul Mansur Khan Safdar Jang Qaraqoyunlu

Although his life was full of strenuous military activity, yet Safdar Jang could hardly be called a successful soldier. In fact, he lacked the courage and zeal of a soldier and the capacity and tact of a general, and hence throughout his official career he could not achieve unaided a single victory to his credit over an enemy possessing even half his financial resources and military strength. And yet strangely enough all his contemporaries ― the Maratha chief, Rajput Rajas, Surajmal Jat and the Muslim nobles and historians ― regarded him as the most powerful Muslim chief and noble of India of their age. His strength lay in his territorial possessions, financial resources and military establishment. He maintained the most martial contingent of troops in the country and kept them satisfied by giving them liberal salaries and rewards and by his personal care for their welfare. Besides the contingents posted in his provinces under his Naibs, Safdar Jang kept a standing army of 20,000 ‘Mughal’ horse of whom six to seven thousands were Qizilbashes, the Iranian Turks, then regarded as the best soldiers in Asia. They had originally belonged to Nadir Shah’s army, but had chosen to stay on in India. He rest were Turanian Turks and Kashmiris, chiefly of the Jadib al district near Srinagar, who pretended to be ‘Mughals’, put on the Mughal dress and spoke the Persian tongue. The Mughal cavalry formed the famous “Sin” regiment, named after the first letter of the name of Saadat Khan. Besides, there was a good number of Hindustani troops of whom the most important element was that of the Naga Sanyasis, popularly known as ‘Gosains’. The troopers rode on sturdy, fleet horses, Persian or indigenous, and the Nawab supplied them with complete equipment, including uniforms and good arms. The Mughal horse-men, who were the wazir’s favourites, were paid at the rate of Rupees fifty per month, while a Hindustani trooper’s salary for the same period was thirty five Rupees only. Foot soldiers were paid at a lesser rate. There were no fixed rules for their increment or promotion, but whenever Safdar Jang reviewed his forces, he would give an increment of rupees ten to a trooper and rupees two to a foot-soldier, if he was pleased with his smartness or efficiency. The Nawab-Wazir was extravagantly liberal to his army and spent huge sums on it. He was always anxious to secure the services of an able commander, captain or soldier, by liberal gifts which he never deducted from their pay. He possessed a large park of artillery, the best in the country, next to the Emperor’s, and many war-elephants with huge amaris having gold and silver plating on them. His chief commanders were Ismail Beg Khan and Rajendra Giri Gosain, His war-camp comprised of everything that could be desired; he even carried boats in order to be able to throw a bridge swiftly over a river, should he have an occasion to cross it.

Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava — The First Two Nawabs Of Awadh [1933] (1954)

Каджарская династия (Капитан Туманский, 1896)

Каджарская династия

О Каджарах существует разноречивые показания. По одним сведениям Каджары Персии ведут свое происхождение от Тюрок-Джелаиров. У Сартака был сын Каджар. Сартак владел пространством от Аму-Дарьи до Рея. Сына своего по приказанию Ильхана-Аба Каана (1265—1282 г.) он поручил Атабеку Аргуну, который и воспитал его. Жили они на Гюргене. Там его поколение и разрослось. В царствование Газан Хана (Хасан 1295—1304 г.) Каджар получил Туман-Тайджу. При Сефевидах, Шах-Аббас, опасаясь усиления этого племени, разделил его на отделения и расселил в разных местах.
По другим сведениям Каджары — туркменский род, который жил около города Туркестана. Среди этого племени было пять братьев — предводителей, старший из них был Каджар-Хан, родоначальник племени Каджаров. Это племя было приведено Хулягу-Ханом (1258—1265 г.) во время его нашествия в Персию. Оно первоначально поселилось в Сирии. Эмир-Тимур захотел вернуть их в их настоящую родину, но большая часть Каджаров не пожелала покидать Сирию и вернулись только немногие, принужденные силой. Затем большая часть Каджаров переселилась к Елизаветполю (Гендже). При Шах-Исмаиле Сефеви находился на службе Пир-Мохаммед-Каджар, при Аббасе I на шахской службе были Шах-Верди-Хан, Мохаммед-Хан и Шах-Кули-Хан, предок нынешней династии. Шах-Аббас для защиты северо-восточных провинций от вторжения туркмен, группы Саин-Хани послал Каджаров в Астрабад и Мерв. В Астрабаде действовал против туркмен упомянутый выше Шах Кули-Хан. У Шах Кули-Хана было двое сыновей: — Невваб-Фетх-Али-Хан, от которого произошла ныне царствующая династия, и Фезл-Али-Ага, родоначальник нынешней Каджарской знати. Во время афганской смуты Фетх-Али-Хан, бывший в то время главой племени, двинулся к Исфагану на помощь к Шах-Султан-Хусейну с тысячью всадниками. Но шах отвергнул его помощь и, одарив его, отпустил домой. При Тахмаспе II, Фетх-Али-Хан явился к нему в Тегеран и вместе с ним двинулся в Хорасанский поход. Надир, считая его опасным соперником для своих честолюбивых замыслов, уговорил Тахмаспа предать его смерти и в окрестностях Мешхеда Фетх Али-Хан пал от руки некоего Мехди-Бека 12 октября 1726 г.1 и похоронен в Мешхеде на кладбище Хадже-Реби.
После смерти Тахмаспа, Надир-Шах назначил правителем Астрабада сына убийцы Тахмаспа. Сын Фетх-Али-Хана, Мохаммед-Хасан-Хан, не поладил с ним и ушел в Туркменскую степь, где набрал себе войско, с которым после смерти Надир-Шаха (1747 г.) овладел большею частью северной Персии. Овладев Астрабадом, Мазандераном и Адербейджаном, он пытался бороться с Керим-Ханом, но принужден был укрыться в Мазандеране.
Его сын — первый государь нынешней династии, — Ага Мохаммед Хан находился долгое время заложником при дворе Керим-Хана, а брат его Хусейн Кули-Хан, известный под именем Джехансуз-Шаха, правил Мазандераном и Дамеганом. Он сам был убит в столкновении с войсками Керим-Хана, а сына его, маленького Фетх-Али (будущего Шаха), привезли в Исфаган.
Ныне царствующий дом. Насир-уд-Дин-Шах, родился 17 июля 1831 г. (6 сефера 1247 г.). Вступил на престол (в Тавризе) 17 сентября 1848 г. (18 шевваля 1264 г.). Восшествие на престол в Тегеране 23 октября 1848 г.

Каджарская артиллерия (Ротмистр Стрельбицкий, 1891)

Каджарская артиллерия

Артиллерия комплектуется исключительно азербейджанцами, которые отправляются на службу в Хорасан командами на 2 года, по истечении которых переводятся в артиллерийские фоуджи, расположенные на родине1. Артиллеристы наиболее дисциплинированный род оружия в Персии, они имеют гораздо более воинской выправки, одеты не только исправно, но даже щеголевато. Форма одежды такая же, как и в пехоте, и отличие составляет герб на шапке, имеющий две перекрещенные пушки; канты на мундирах зеленые. Офицеры имеют парадную форму австрийскую, вне строя же носят общенациональное платье. Довольствие и жалованье выдается артиллеристам гораздо исправнее, чем в остальных войсках, быть может потому, что турки до сих пор еще не так забиты и безгласны, чтоб безропотно переносить все притеснения начальников. Артиллерийские орудия и вообще вся материальная часть весьма разнообразны и вообще находятся в печальном положении. Орудия все гладкие, заряжающиеся с дула, и содержатся весьма небрежно; лафеты к ним, передки и зарядные ящики ― деревянные и от древности и отсутствия ремонта положительно грозят рассыпаться. Орудия имеются:
·         в Мусынабаде ― 2, одно турецкое девяти-фунтовое, другое ― персидской работы, 4-x фунтовое;
·         в Бирджане ― 6 девяти-фунтовых орудий, 1 четырех фунтовое;
·         в Нафабаде (Сеистане) ― 5 девяти-фунтовых.
·         в Мешеде ― число неизвестно.
·         в Серахсе ― число неизвестно.
Кроме того, как говорят, каинский эмир хранит в большом секрете несколько стальных орудий европейского изготовления более современных образцов.

Каджарская артиллерия в Хорасане (Капитан Орановский, 1896)

Каджарская артиллерия в Хорасане

Вооруженные силы района состоят из пехотных и артиллерийских частей постоянной армии и из конной милиции.
Части постоянных войск расположены в следующих местах:
1.       В Мешеде ― 3 батальона пехоты, всего до 1,500 человек, и 250 артиллеристов.
2.       В Серахсе ― 200 человек пехоты и 20 артиллеристов.
3.       В Келате ― 500 человек пехоты и 20 артиллеристов.
4.       В Мусын-абаде ― 200 чел. пехоты и 20 артиллеристов.
Артиллерия в районе немногочисленна, всего 310 артиллеристов. Этот род оружия, набираемый всецело из Азербейджанских турок, значительно более дисциплинирован, лучше одет и исправнее получает содержание, чем пехота. Батарей с запряжкой в мирное время совсем не имеется; орудия хранятся в арсеналах, а лошади ― в тех местностях, где фураж обходится дешевле; таких лошадей, предназначенных для артиллерии в Чинаране содержится около 100.
Орудия в районе находятся в следующих местах: