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Sunday, January 20, 2019

Главнокомандующий регулярных войск Бухарского эмирата Шахрух-хан Каджар (Галкин-Враской М.Н., 1868)


Главнокомандующий регулярных войск Бухарского эмирата Шахрух-хан Каджар




Главное начальство над сарбазами вверено Шагрух-хану, беглому персиянину, когда-то бывшему астрабадским губернатором. Шагрух, или Шерук-хан пользовался прежде большим доверием эмира, но в последнее время был в опале, и у него отобрали и продали все имения и едва не отрубили ему голову. Помощники Шерук-хана называются — мир-охурами. Они носят штаб-офицерские или обер-офицерские эполеты, золотые или серебряные, привозимые из России. Эполеты даются в распоряжение Шерук-хана, а он потом награждает ими подчиненных офицеров, по своему усмотрению. Все мир-охуры носят русские шарфы, куртки, шелком шитые, кожаные шаровары и по 2 или 3 пистолета. Офицеры эти за малые преступления наказывают сами своих подчиненных, а за большие Шерук-хан отсчитывает обыкновенно сам по 30 палок на человека; за бегство-же — полагается смерть, но не иначе, как по приказанию эмира. Почти все сарбазы состоят из пленных персиян и небольшая часть из русских; бухарцы-же принимаются в сарбазы только по собственному желанию. Срок службы сарбаза-пленника зависит от заплаченной за него цены, по заслужении которой ему дается от эмира билет на свободное проживание в ханстве.


Галкин-Враской, Михаил Николаевич. Этнографические и исторические материалы по Средней Азии и Оренбургскому краю / [соч.] М. Н. Галкина. — СПб.: Издание Я.А. Исакова, 1868. - [4], 336 с., 15 л. ил, к., пл. Стр. 215—216.

Friday, January 18, 2019

Mervi Turks in Bukhara army (Sir Alexander Burnes, 1834)


Mervi Turks in Bukhara army




The following detail of the military force of the kingdom will afford an insight into the power of the several districts, and serve also to mark the great Uzbek tribes at present existing in the country. The first list is composed of cavalry; I also add the names of their chiefs, here called “Bee,” which is a Turkish word, better known in Europe as Bey.

Tribes
No.
Chiefs.
District.
Kongrad
1,000
Moorad Bee
Kurshee
Suraee
1,000
Ashoor Bee

Yaboo
2,000
Md. Ameer Bee

Khitai
500
Hoosun Bee
Yargi Koorghan
Kipchack
500
Mahmood Bee
Chuluk
Surkh Khitai
800
Aderagood Bee Kut
Koorghan
Kara Kilpauk
400
Thikeem Bee
Sheeraz
Kur Khyooz
500
Shade Bee
Jizzak
Dyakhlee
600
Alum Bee
Punjenud
Meeng
2,000
Kut Bee
Ooloogut
Nymun
500
Kalaitoksa Bee
Zeodeen
Julaee
400
Roostum Bee
Punjshumbu
Meetna
400
Abdoo Jubbar Bee
Meetum
Bahreen
500
Kobad Bee
Katurchee
Boorkoot
500
Abdoo Jubber Bee
Nooratun
Kulloogh
600
Abdoo Russool Bee
Kermina
Huzara
300
Abdoo Jubber Bee
Ditto
Kutghun
300
Doulut Bee
Ditto from Koondooz
Arabuchee
400
Good Md. Bee
Karakool
Chunder
400
Dolmus Bee
Ditto
Toorkmuns N. of the Oxus
800
Eser Bee
Banks of the Oxus
Kalmucks
1,000
Rhodaee Nug
Bokhara
Mixed tribes of Bokhara, called “Shagird Peshu”
2,000
The King
Bokhara
Mervees
1,000
Persians
Mad. Suduk Bee
Ditto
500
Moorad Bee Meer Akhor
Samarcand
Zorabadee
500
Lootf Ali Beg
Zorabud, near Kurshee
Grand total
19,500



Sir Alexander Burnes, Travels into Bokhara; being the account of a journey from India to Cabool, Tartary and Persia; also, narrative of a voyage on the Indus, from the sea to Lahore, with presents from the King of Great Britain; performed under the orders of the supreme government of India, in the years 1831, 1832, and 1833. Vol. II. — London: John Murray, 1834. Pp. 373—374.

Javanshirs of Kabul (Sir Alexander Burnes, 1834)


Javanshirs of Kabul




The differences which subsist between Dost Mahommed Khan and his brothers lessen the influence of all parties, and would lay open the state to intrigue and faction, if invaded. The family of Barukzye have nothing to fear from any other Afghan tribe, since they surpass all in numbers as much as in power. The chiefs of Peshawur and Candahar do not want the wish to injure their brother of Cabool, but they cannot accomplish their purpose. Both of them have had a footing in Cabool, and look with envy on the prosperity of Dost Mahommed Khan. Both have emissaries at his court, who excite disturbance; and both cherish hopes of rooting out one whom they consider a usurper. The task will be found difficult; for the chief of Cabool, besides the moderation and justice which secure him so many friends, enjoys an advantage in his Persian descent, which will prove of material service to him in adversity. He holds the warlike clan of Juwansheer in his interests, and takes every occasion to conciliate this tribe, which has so often turned the scale in favour of different pretenders to the throne. He has acquired their language (the Turkish), and promoted their interests and well-being. The Persians of Cabool amount to about 12,000 families; they reside in a separate quarter of the city, which keeps up an esprit de corps among them. It also gives them a knowledge of their power, which may prove salutary or prejudicial to the factions that divide the country, according to circumstances. The state of fear which an enemy on both sides must inspire has a bad effect on Dost Mahommed Khan's administration. With his own house as an object of care, he is not likely to pursue conquests abroad, or retrieve the fallen state of Cabool.


Sir Alexander Burnes, Travels into Bokhara; being the account of a journey from India to Cabool, Tartary and Persia; also, narrative of a voyage on the Indus, from the sea to Lahore, with presents from the King of Great Britain; performed under the orders of the supreme government of India, in the years 1831, 1832, and 1833. Vol. II. — London: John Murray, 1834. Pp. 332—333.

Thursday, January 17, 2019

Knights and heroines of Merv (Sir Alexander Burnes, 1834)


Knights and heroines of Merv




We were now in the vicinity of Merve, and several members of the caravan, on their approach to the river, declared that they had a view of the elevated mound of its ruined castle. I sought in vain, but the other spectators were looking for their native city, and wished, perhaps, to persuade themselves that they beheld it. I listened to the tales of valour which these people related to me of one Bairam Khan and a chosen body of seven hundred, that long resisted the arms of the Uzbeks of Bokhara, till Shah Moorad finally subdued them by a stratagem in war, and forcibly transferred the whole population to his capital. Nor was I less gratified to hear the patriotic tale of the heroines of Merve, the wives and daughters of the gallant band. It is recorded, and it is believed, that on one occasion, when the forces of Bokhara invaded the land of Merve, during the absence of Bairam Khan and his knights, these fair ones embodied and appeared in the field. The Uzbeks were intimidated at the sight of troops whom they believed they had surprised, and fled with precipitation, leaving the heroines of Merve their virtuous victors: nor is this a solitary instance of female triumph over man. The people of Merve, in their loss of country and liberty, retain the same reputation for valour which characterised their ancestors; and, to this day, when they quit the country, their valiant partners are held in Bokhara as a pledge of their fidelity, and may on no account cross the Oxus.


Sir Alexander Burnes, Travels into Bokhara; being the account of a journey from India to Cabool, Tartary and Persia; also, narrative of a voyage on the Indus, from the sea to Lahore, with presents from the King of Great Britain; performed under the orders of the supreme government of India, in the years 1831, 1832, and 1833. Vol. II. — London: John Murray, 1834. Pp. 37—38.