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Thursday, October 19, 2017

Презрение Надир-шах Афшара к иранцам


Счастливец эпохи отпустил пришедшее к нему индийское войско, и помянутые люди, воспользовавшись этим, отправились к месту цели. Что же касается войска из Шахджеханабада и его округи, то на Камар ад-Дина было возложено полностью успокоить сердаров, командиров и начальников и обнадежить, [сообщив ] о снисходительности счастливого государя. На другой день владыка мира велел служащим величественной казны приготовить [все для] собрания по случаю счастливого приезда Мухаммад-шаха и устроить пышное торжество и подобный раю пир и отдал приказ о приглашении с большим почетом и уважением того высокого падишаха. После благословенного прибытия этих двух величественных государей они, подобно двум светилам в одном созвездии, уселись на одном троне, а эмиры и приближенные каждого из них расположились с обеих сторон в соответствующих местах,— и благодаря счастью подобного Фаридуну падишаха состоялось такое собрание, что пока месяц и солнце находятся в этом голубом шатре, они не видели очами мудрости подобного пиршества, и пока Венера... играет на кануне увеселения, она не устраивала такого пышного веселья и с такими удовольствиями. Старый небесный свод приказал в тот радостный день украсить звездами тот райский пир и для достижения настоящего совершенства бросил на огонь солнца, как руту, ожерелье Плеяд. Семь планет изумлялись, глядя из комнат вращающегося круга на это торжество, и у небесной сферы неподвижных звезд || выступил на лбу пот стыда из-за убранства этого торжества. Внутри шатра слуги, как солнце и месяц, в положении гурий и мальчиков, «подобных жемчужинам спрятанным», стояли со всех сторон у края ковра, и в стремлении [привлечь] внимание каждый забывал зов веры и разума. Снаружи шатра стояли рядом друг с другом по правилам приличия опытные, смелые, как Бахрам, военачальники, одетые в разноцветные платья. Словом, снаружи и внутри согласно царскому этикету состоялось такое торжество, какого ни в одном веке ни одним обладателем богатства и могущества не устраивалось. По этому правилу, когда веселый пир окончился, военачальникам было приказано удалиться; после их ухода был отдан высочайший приказ, чтобы близкие доверенные лица и слуги высокого дворца вышли из шатра и находились молча в стороне. Когда все ушли, небеснопышный государь устроил частное совещание, и они говорили друг другу тайны и вели секретный разговор.

Saturday, September 23, 2017

The Qizilbashes of the Farah Province in Afghanistan (Arthur Campbell Yate, 1887)

The Qizilbashes of the Farah Province in Afghanistan




The inhabitants of Juwain consist of Afghans of the Sak-zai or Ishak-zai section, and of Kizilbashes. The former are naturally the dominant race; but the latter are, I hear, treated with more than ordinary consideration, lest they forsake Juwain and emigrate to Persian Seistan, as many have already done at the invitation of the Amir of Kain. It appears that some twelve or fifteen years ago this district was visited by drought and famine, and the Amir of Kain then offered the starving Kizilbash population a home and the wherewithal to live in his own territory ― an offer they not unnaturally availed themselves of. None of our party entered the walls of Juwain; and from the description given of its interior by the inhabitants, I have reason to believe that we should congratulate ourselves on this omission. A Kizilbash with whom I conversed, complained of the injustice of the chief towards his class; but I doubt if his statement was worthy of credit, seeing that I was informed on good authority that, for fear of a general emigration of the Kizilbash inhabitants, the chief was careful to check even religious differences between his own tribesmen, who are Sunnis, and the Kizilbashes, who are Shi’ahs.



Arthur Campbell Yate — England and Russia Face to Face in Asia: travels with the Afghan Boundary Commission, Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood & Sons, 1887, pp. 100―101.

The Qarai Turks of Khorasan (General Staff, 1910)

The Qarai Turks of Khorasan



QARAI (No. 1) (Tribe) ―
A Turkish tribe of Khorasan, inhabiting the districts of Turshiz and Turbat-i-Haidari, where they are said to have been brought by Timur. The chiefs of Qarai, however, appear to have lost their former pretensions to independence, and it may be assumed that, in common with the rural population of the interior districts, the Qarai would if no specially unfavourable influences were at work, be available for defence in the event of invasion. The Qarai are still accounted a warlike race; and the regiments recruited from them, one of which is supplied by Turbat-i-Haidari and the other by Turshiz, bear a high reputation.
According to enquiries made at different times from well-informed old people in Khorasan, the Qarai are Turks. They probably come from the same stock as the Garili (q.v.), a large number of whose families are said to have been moved by one of the Mongol kings from Turkistan so Syria, whence they were brought to Fars by Amir Timur, and eventually from Fars to Khorasan by Shah Ismai’l Safavi. They remained in the Merv and Herat districts for some time, but afterwards settled in the Turbat-i-Haidari district, which was in an almost independent state in the early part of the nineteenth century. They were a very powerful tribe then, but gradually their numbers decreased.
Their decline was the result of rebellion, continued persecution by the Turkomans, and famine.
Is-haq Khan, the well-known Qarai chief, gained great power, and was in open rebellion during the reign of Fath ‘Ali Shah Kajar, but he was killed with his son, Hasan ‘Ali Khan, at Meshed by Prince Muhammad Vali Mirza in the year 1815. His second son, Muhammad Qhan Qarai, then rebelled, but coerced by Hasan ‘Ali Mirza, the Shuja’-us-Sultaneh in 1819. He broke out into rebellion again and took possession of the town of Meshed in 1829, but was subdued by the troops of Ahmad ‘Ali Mirza, son of Fath ‘Ali Shah, who was appointed Governor-General of Khorasan. He, however, remained in a semi-independent state during his lifetime.
After his death the chiefs of the Qarai tribe lost their former independence, and gradually the hereditary chiefship was abolished, and the tribe placed under the Governor of Turbat-i-Haidari for the time being.

Дербентские турки (Комаров А.В., 1873)

Дербентские турки




Южная часть прибрежной равнины, от Башлинской речки до Гюрген-чая, занята различными Тюркскими племенами, переселившимися из разных мест Адербейджана, Ширвана и Кубы. Начало этого переселения в точности неизвестно; в истории Абас-Кули-Бакиханова есть указание, что плоскость нижнего Кайтаха начала заселяться только со второй половины XVI столетия; с того времени владетели Кайтахские, Дербентские и Кубинские всеми мерами старались заселить свои земли и для этого приглашали желающих, а иногда и силою переводили целые селения из Ширвана.
В особенности частые переселения производились в Дербент персидскими шахами, для которых весьма важно было обладание этим городом. Еще до настоящего времени в Дербенте различаются между собою следующие племена: 1) Караманлы, переселенные шахом Измаилом в 1509 году из Тавриза. 2) Курчи, пришедшие при шахе Тахмаспе в 1540 году. 3) Боят, при шахе Абасе, к концу XVI века и 4) Микри, пришедшие при шахе Надире в 1741 году. Из остальных племен различаются между собою: Терекеме, выходцы из Туркмении, Падар, Карадаглы, Дели-Чобан, Арабляр и Маграга.
Все они говорят Тюрко-Адербейджанским языком. Дербентцы отличаются особым выговором.
Всего в Дербентце и 29-ти тюркских селениях считается 4063 двора и 18250 душ.



Комаров А.В., Народонаселение Дагестанской области // Записки Кавказского отдела Императорского русского географического общества. Книжка VIII. ― Тифлис, 1873, стр. 23—24.

The Qashqais during the Constitutional Revolution (J. H. Bill, 1910)

The Qashqais during the Constitutional Revolution



The prestige and self-confidence of this important tribe and of its leader Sowlet-ed-Dowleh has increased greatly during the year. As already noted they have displayed an unanimity unprecedented in the history of the tribe, and the consolidation of Sowlet’s authority, due to the practical disappearance of his brother Zeigham-ed-Dowleh from the tribal politics, is sufficient by itself to render the tribe twice as formidable as it has been in the past.
It is freely alleged that Saham-ed-Dowleh’s failure to procure Sowlet’s dismissal was due to the latter having bribed Sipahdar, and it would certainly seem improbable that Sardar Assad, with whom he is on the worst of terms, would not have seized the opportunity to dismiss him, had he not met with strong resistance from his colleague.
As a result it is doubtful whether any attention would now be paid by the Kashgais to orders from Tehran dismissing Sowlet-ed-Dowleh, and it seems far more likely that the only result would be to provoke the latter to open rebellion.
Not only the Kashgais, but the Farsis in general are accustomed to speak contemptuously of the present Government as “those (variously qualified) Bakhtiaris in Tehran,” and it is by no means improbable that Sowlet, cautious as he is by nature, may, during the ensuing year, be driven by public opinion within his tribe to some overt act of hostility against the ascendancy of the Bakhtiari, whom every Kashgai considers inferior to his tribe both in courage and in numbers. It is safe to say that very little of the old time prestige of Tehran and the Shah’s Government has descended to the persons now in power, who are regarded rather as a band of unusually successful robbers than as the representatives of duly constituted authority.

The Qizilbashes of Afghanistan (Henry Walter Bellew, [1857] 1862)

The Qizilbashes of Afghanistan




The “Kazzilbash” race is allied to the Tajik as being of Persian origin and speaking the same language, or a dialect, but differing slightly from the Persian of the Tajiks, from whom, however, they differ in every other respect. The Kazzilbash is a “Mugal” of Turki descent, belongs like the true Persian to the “Shiah” sect of Mohammadans, speaks pure Persian, and is, in fact, a modern Persian. The location of this race in Afghanistan is of recent date. They entered the country with Nadir Shah, who established a colony of them at Kabul about the year 1737 A.D. This colony maintains its power to the present day, exerts a considerable influence, and forms by no means a weak faction of the government at Kabul. The Kazzilbashes are a handsome, fair-complexioned, and manly people, and possess many martial qualities, with which, however, are combined the polish, cunning, and venality of the true Persian. At Kabul they constitute the bulk of the cavalry and artillery forces of the Amir; and a large number of them are also to be found in the irregular cavalry regiments of the British Indian army, where they enjoy a character for smartness and intelligence, combined with excellent horsemanship. But the major portion of this race in Afghanistan are occupied as merchants, physicians, scribes, petty traders, &c., and are chiefly found settled in the large towns and cities, where they are justly considered a better educated and superior class of the general population. At Kabul this race has exercised no small influence in Persianizing the Afghan court, if not in political tendency, at least in manners. And this is perhaps in some measure attributable to marriage connections, for it is a common thing for the Kazzilbash to give his daughter in marriage to the Afghan. But the Afghans, though they do not hesitate to contact this connection, will not in return grant the same favour to the Kazzilbashes, whom they consider as heretics, or almost infidels, on account of their opposite religious tenets, and consequently despise them. The aggregate number of this race in Afghanistan is probably not much less than 200,000 souls.



Henry Walter Bellew, Journal of a political mission to Afghanistan, in 1857, under Major (now Colonel) Lumsden; with an account of the country and people, London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1862, pp. 16―17.

The Turkish tribes of Kerman (General Staff, 1923)

The Turkish tribes of Kerman



Sirjan, Afshars. ― Mostly nomadic, living more especially in Aqta and Khabr. They number about 2,000 tents, but are not much use as fighting men. Friendly to the Buchaqchis.
Buchaqchis. ― A nomad tribe living round Chahar Gumbaz in summer and Bagh Khajui in winter. It possesses about 900 tents, but few good fighting men.
Karai. ― A nomad tribe of flock-owners, living in summer round Chah Haq and in the Sarchahan valley, and in winter moving a long way down the road towards Bandar Abbas. They do a certain amount of robbery. Their tents number about 1,000. The men are no fighters and have a reputation for bringing bad luck and defeat to any force they are with.
Shul Turkis. ― A nomad tribe of 400 tents living in and around Daristan Sirjan in summer and close by near Puzeh Khua in winter. They are enemies to the Buchaqchis, and they pride themselves that, though fewer in numbers, they are better fighters, man for man than the Buchaqchis.
Arashlu. ― A small nomadic tribe living around Gughar. Claimed by the Buchaqchis as part of themselves.



Military report on Persia. Vol. IV, part I. Persian Baluchistan, Kerman and Bandar Abbas. Simla: Central Government Press, 1923, pp. 71―72.